Algeria - the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria
Democratic People's Republic of Algeria is a State located in the north African continent, bounded on the north Mediterranean, the Kingdom of Morocco and west and the south-west of Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali and Niger south-east and east of Libya and Tunisia in the north-east Algeria and its capital is in the far north, the currency in circulation is Algerian dinar and the largest cities of Algiers, Oran and Constantine.
Algeria is a founding member of the Organization of Arab Maghreb in 1988, a member of the League of Arab States and Organization of the United Nations since independence, a member of the Organization of African Unity and many regional and global institutions.
In terms of area of Algeria is the second largest African country after Sudan and atheist tenth in the world. Include the northern region, which stretches from the Atlas mountain range to the sea 94% of the total population.
Algeria is a land of vast desert, and a coastal plain in the north along the Mediterranean, the most important chains Atlas Mountains hill, which is parallel to the coastal plain, desert and the Atlas Mountains to the south, where the highest summit in Algeria, Tahat the highest summit in 3303, and a mountain tribes and Al-Auras and children Neil Zab. No permanent rivers in the country run, but the valleys are filled with water in winter, and then run into the fertile pastures or to become known as closed as many as the most important of the Shatt al-Alctoot Hug and Melvig, consisting of sand Sohar (race) and laptop (Jmadp). And phosphate, oil and dates, fruit
Provinces of Algeria
1 mandate Adrar
2 Chlef Province
3 mandate Laghouat
4 mandate or Residuals
5 Batna Province
6 the province of Bejaia
7 Biskra Province
8 mandate Bashar
9 mandate of Blida
10 mandate of Bouira
11 states Tamanrasset
13 Tlemcen Province
14 states Tiaret
15 Tizi Ouzou
16 states Algeria
17 Djelfa Province
18 Department of Jijel
19 mandate of the ACL
20 states happy
21 mandate of Skikda
22 Sidi Bel Abbes
23 Annaba Province
24 mandate of Guelma
Medea State 26
27 states Mostaganem
28 states liquefied
29 states camp
30 states and Ouargla
31 states Oran
32 states eggs
33 states Alesi
34 states tower Buaririj
35 the Boumerdes
36 El Tarf Province
37 states Tindouf
38 states Tissemsilt
39 mandate of the valley
40 states Khenchela
41 mandate Souk Ahras
42 mandates Tipaza
43 mandate Mila
44 mandate of Ain Defla
45 mandate of the ostrich
46 Aïn Témouchent Province
47 mandate of Ghardaia
48 To Relizane
Be of Algerian society
Community in any State, is a group of individuals (men and women) choose to live in one State-sponsored election laws and ratify it.
Are close, the Algerian people, Kalshaob Maghreb have a common history, differences within Algerian society, eager for a historic races that lived on land, isolation chosen by categories, types of communication in other categories.
Society before independence
Ottomans took control of the large cities, asking its environs, as representing the country's foreign policy, and did not intervene in the lives of people displaced. An urban society in cities, on the basis of the so-called quarter on a big family. Kind of class modern cities across the divide, separate each quarter. And security, can be closed individually or collectively in times of danger or night, and had representatives Rabua, conduct their own internal behalf of the Ottomans.
Which also lived among the Arab population of the urban mix of Arabs and Turks, Alkraglp. Alondlcin refugees, as well as Christian slaves (a booming trade) of the average Algerian Almcbokp piracy. Also, African slaves as servants. Was in many cities, Jewish communities, their importance has emerged with the entry of the French. Mizab beings lived in small numbers, which Tmlkua trade, as they conducted public bathrooms, visited the tribal towns, before the option of returning to their places of origin.
In the countryside, we find that birth control is almost overwhelming, significance: family, small proportions, acknowledges the very same time. With cooperation, diet treatment, and dominance of the Senate resolution. The number of families converged in: descent, to present very well known. Party is over when the Arabs, where are siblings together more closely, specific sphere of influence, the name of Party and way of life. The Union of tribal common before 20 century.
The differentiation between the teams expressing varying prestige, and diet, the strength of the individual from his tribe and the tribe. Terrace (honest) gentleman who claimed to be descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, the leaders of the war (horse) and the Patriarchs Almoravid (Sofia) spiritual their influence on the population and their management of scientific angles, and the solution favors the contract. Alqaid (commander) is the representative of the tribe in with other matters, as well as its authoritarian.
Was also common to show diet and conflicts, for example, has contracted with some tribes tidal Afrencs against Prince Abdul Qadir, only because they felt Bastqguaih it, not because they saw miles of it or for the benefit of France.
The Berber tribes more democracy and equality. System governed by the laws and customs of oral, is the group (al-). There was no class in the villages of tribes as when they were Arabs, and encouraged the individual from within.
Jews from Algeria in 1870
Europeans entered the country, and took home Ohassanha, monopolized sector, trade, administration, and political representation, without taking into account the situation of indigenous people. Algerians Tqlsoa urban and Hrfe abandoned the city and landowners were liquidate Arabs.
Development-oriented rapid growth of European settlers, from the 19 century, more than 27 thousand people in 1840 to about 126 people after the decimal, that reached 2 million at the entrance of the twentieth century. Growth, with good use of land, accompanied by the advance of rural express, ranking the cheap labor, inefficient in the industrial field. Europeans scorned and isolated from their tribe and customs of the former, which gave them a sense of protection and solidarity. Increased crawl after the First World War and sharply after the second. At the same time, many of whom emigrated to France in search of work itself. Tribes were the most immigrants during the fifties.
Europeans form the category alone, so the two sections, European and Algerian Kalpdihip. Settlers entered stabilized things after the French campaign, is not coming from France alone, but large numbers of Spain and Italy, in search of new opportunities. Foot black identified by name, as a guide to the edge of their feet dirty, their extreme poverty was unknown.
Algerian rich class represented the highest level in this class, thanks to maintain its territorial holdings. However, the villagers were generally destitute, isolated, the majority of whom are illiterate and did not want the middle class (bourgeoisie) in French rival another.
However, and in the early twentieth century, a marriage between merchants Algeria and French bourgeoisie. Learning their children in French schools, in homes or in France, to the advantage of the emergence of European, consisting of lawyers and doctors, pharmacists, teachers and administrators, and even politicians. Opportunities for these social class (called: SAIC), although this was limited, and hampered political development as well.
Migration to Alrevi gathered inside the country (live) by race, as shown in the sub-specialization of each race. But overcrowding and lack of housing, payment of any individual surroundings of the diaspora, and took degrees of ethnic solidarity among themselves. However, remains communication between family members.
Raft was expressing that had not and does not fry king, forced to accept humiliating urban living. Began cross-trading centers near the settlement, then the problem of some kind of garrison own, but always Ahtqrt farming.
Revolution and Social Change
Following the participation of many Algerians in the First World War, the liberation of France, and after the promise of granting Algerian independence, and their return loaded with revolutionary thinking. Algerians took advantage of the opportunity to ask France to achieve its promise, responded mass May 8, which amounted to 45,000 victims killed in one day.
Revolution hit full force in 1954. The impact of touch revolution all groups and spectrums of society, rural and urban individual, family, and at the local level.
In response to the requirements of the conflict, appeared individualism, the ability of personal military leadership. Women, who had their role and the wearing of headscarves care homes, found themselves suddenly in the midst of war. The war for many, a radical change of mentality of the tribe and the world beyond the tribe.
Youth were always enthusiasm, clear individual phenomenon, taking the new revolutionary leaders in the introduction, the disposition of personal rather than tribal.
Fierce fighting took about 7 years throughout the country. France's policy and then loaded on as long as the isolation and in Mahchdat arrest, more than 2 million villagers rounded up individuals. The number of Algerians deported from their land is not known precisely, 3 million is the figure given by the Algerian authorities, the men expelled temporarily or permanently. Until 1965, there was a concentration of 2 million people in the center of the country Such camps.
The demise of the smaller ones, out of the social control of pride and magnanimity, which was common. Instead, the French who took part Such camps have seen the effects of solidarity with the poor strangers. The destruction of old bonds of community, tough women, in various aspects. Although the migration of family tradition, the village women, where the wearing of headscarves rarely, Aden voluntarily, in order to Ulster.
As a result of this displacement of France, lost a large proportion of the population, including Rabat and the ancestral land. Families found themselves separated from the others, names and titles of confusing overlapping, and shattered the tribe. French system was based on the family unit, against Arab tribal, change the pattern of living people, from agriculture to the economy of money.
Even relations between generations overturned, and the traditional class is dead. Youth was ready to accept new ideas, leaving things the Senate floor, and pride, the painfully isolated and so on. This increase, it is loving the lives of rural settlement and prosperity, changing Takecvh in rural areas previously.
About civil society
After independence, change the whole society than ever before, the displacement of Europeans between 62-63, leaving the agricultural community illiterate, employment and a number of cities. The proportion of middle class estimated 1% in 1964 from the Algerians. Educated Algerians remained in the country, but they were fewer in all technical areas. Has many characteristics of the Mujahidin, distinct class, composed of men revolution.
The children of martyrs too, have had their associations, and state support and the permanent sponsor of their own affairs.
During the colonization, was the clear difference in the community two classes: the Europeans and Algerians. Besnaip, European middle class landowners adults, and even employment simple. Algerians as well as written above, were educated classes, commercial, and professional and farming. All of this with independence, playing Algeria for Algerians.
The displacement of Europeans, created the modern Algerian class: French technical, administrative Mfirnson, officers of the war, leaders of single-party FLN. Aldzaiirien few industrialists had influence, keeping the state bureaucrats, formed pressure group. The level of education, more than any other, belonging to the privileged class.
Houari Boumedienne, and who was president from 1967-1978 led the country towards socialist Islamic, saying that Islam is the basis of equality, there is no contradiction between him and Socialist. Nevertheless, this approach resulted in the harvesting of social and political pressures.
The look of these technical and administrative Western, and tried Grbenp Algerians, focusing on women Kncef society, erasing all traces of clan and tribal traditions, highlighting each time, the role of innovation, education, civilization in the creation of the state.
The next class, middle class. Government officials, traders, doctors, teachers and lawyers. Also artisans. Non-traders. The number of rest sharply after independence, full of vacuum Europeans. City residents, also enjoyed remarkable prosperity of this class in the seventies.
Employment and labor comes layer below, have had many opportunities and attractive to fill, construction, transportation, and private foundations. Kochtha and the middle class, employment flourished under the socialist regime generous. The fundamental problems of language (illiteracy)
Finally, the peasant class, the owners of the land or not, or servants of the State's territory. Some of them have to cut farm between 1976-1980, others have had luck, while the land remains (redistribute land for farming) private property, comprising the agro-industrial complexes, taking advantage of State support, and construction of new roads and services, in remote villages .
With the functioning of society towards modernity, between 1980-1990, millions of Algerians and stood isolated between the old traditions and modernity that do not meet the inquiring spirituality. Severe this problem Algerian youth in particular, girls for example, faced continuing education demands of parents or family preservation. Young boys, lived pornography and Western modernity radical Islam, as well as language requirements, the control of French and Arabic. Above all, youth unemployment, which reached 41% late 1990.
No ready-made solutions, the problem of unemployment, a factor in the liberation of illusions is the glory of socialism, cronyism and management sounded stupid.
The State has opened a national megaphone, and the revolution in the seventies, radio and television, newspapers and museums. Commending one-party politics and the virtues of dictatorship. After 15 years of hearing the same speech, they echoed the facts, the facts mentioned by members of dissidents by the regime itself, or it Chasers.
Muslim youths gather directed towards Salvation Front, Bouklayaha at universities or large cities, and they were black ammunition in the decade.