Mahieddine chosen as head of the Arab insurgency, marched his troops against the Turkish garrison Mascara, and mercy killing; later he fought the French under the walls of Oran, and deployed great courage. The young Abd-el-Kader them particularly distinguished, and it seemed to be immune to bullets and bullets, he had two horses killed under him. The white bathrobe there wore and which was red with the blood of his own, has been retained as a relique.Depuis taking Algiers, the Arab party appeared to have regained his freedom, but it was so leaderless : Mahieddine while he was influential, was not sovereign. Some tribes does not obeyed. On the other hand the Arabs saw with concern the French conquest spread. Submission of Ibrahim Bey of Mostaganem, to discourage completed; there was a general assembly of tribal chiefs to elect the sultan of the Arabs. The rendezvous took place in plain Ghris in a place called Ersebia. He was appointed Mahieddine issue, but it said that the marabout Sidi el-Arrach was more worthy than him such a great honor. The board retreated to meet the next day. That day, we saw happen Sidi el-Arrach: Brothers, he said, raising his hands to the sky tonight, the famous marabout Mahi Abd-el-Kader seemed to me in the middle of his glory and said: "Sidi el-Arrach, remember these words from which depends the salvation of our race. I know of only one man who, by his virtues, his courage and intelligence-, is worthy of ordering the Arabs is Abd al-Kader, the third son of Mahieddine. The t'ordonne I therefore repeat to the board tomorrow what you just heard. Allah and his Prophet interested in the cause of their children and want it to triumph. "Mahieddine intervened and added:" I heard the same words Sidi el-torn off and I received the same orders, but I will die within one year after the advent of my son. That is the prophecy of my ancestor. "The title of Sultan was then granted Abd-el-Kader, heads bowed and presented him the purple bathrobe. This happened in the year AH 1248 (1832), 28 September. The new sultan began to preach holy war, and brings together around him a lot of brave and dedicated men. After the case of Macta had consolidated his power, he thought to create a permanent military force, deployed great skill, and showed a rare observation. Seeing the French army composed largely of infantry, he formed a body of cavalry who could attack, or to avoid an unequal battle. The first body does climbed to first 400 men who gave great service to the sultan. To maintain regular battalions, he put taxes on goods, it raised taxes, then did build stores of food, arms and munitions.Lorsqu he began to make war with the French in the west of Algeria, General Louis Alexis Desmichels was governor of the province of Oran as its predecessor, it was independent of General-in-chief. He believed that Arabs be influenced or intimidated by the French superiority ... It was wrong; in May 1833 he defeated several times Abd-el-Kader, and seized Mostaganem. The emir, outraged to see Muslims coming supply the French, did remove the head of Arzew who had to undergo, and led him to where he was Mascara condané to death. In October the same year his troops attacked the escort of the Commission of Africa, with 1 800 men, but he was beaten near Ain-el-Bidha.Abd-el-Kader, death of his father (1833), retired some time in Mascara, and then get back at the head of his troops had blocked the city of Oran by the tribe Rharaba and cut all communication with Mostaganem by that of Hashem. The tactic succeeds, the arrivals stopped on the French markets. The tribes submitted sought to detach français.Abd-el-Kader, taking advantage of the state of mind, handed the French a trap in which four of them were captured and a fifth killed. General Desmichels wrote to demand the soldiers victims of a shameful betrayal, but Abd-el-Kader refused to surrender and ended his response with a défi.Le General Desrnichels did not wait long answer. The case of Tamezouat had not intimidated the Arabs. It was after the fight, returned women and children douars which had fallen into the French power and indigenous people, including not only the reason for this measure, believed that they had acted, not with generosity, but with faiblesse.Lorsque after the exit, markets were Oran is a little supplies, General Desmichels wrote back to Abd-el-Kader, requesting an interview. The emir did stand guard himself, he thought it was too over the French generals in its sovereign position: it has deigned to grant that Marshal for the Thomas-Robert Bugeaud, Louis Christophe Leon Juchault of Moricière and the Duke of Aumale. A letter from General Desmichels he replied that he was defending Islam to submit to invaders, but it allowed him to accept peace if it was proposed. Abd-el-Kader then felt the need to cease hostilities against the French, despite setbacks, the French felt near Oran, in a place called Dar-el-Bidah (White House), he continued negotiations started urging its Aga, Mouloud-bin and the Arrach-Kid Ouled-Mahmoud, to agree outside of Oran, with the séfaradeMandoukaï-Amar, on the basis of a peace treaty that would be between the France and the Arabs. Abd-el-Kader have insisted Mostaganem, but denied on this point, he asked Arzew, where he managed to establish his authority without the agreement of the French.
They reached an agreement on the following three provisions of the Treaty:
Submission of Arabs in France;
Free trade full;
Immediate surrender of prisoners.
When the envoys of Abd-el-Kader s'occupèrent of writing this important act, together with key civilian and military leaders of the province, they deployed both cunning and skill, that the main conditions set by French as were canceled, and the same, that the French imposed seemed to be more favorable to Arabs.
Treaty with the French: This treaty was signed on 24 February 1834. Abd-el-Kader, satisfied, believed rest assured, when new enemies attack came in his retirement. Ben Mustapha Ismael, head of douars, who was Aga before the conquest, could not be resolved to submit to a usurper or, as he said, a shepherd, son of a shepherd. Another leader, who has long led a life of banditry, Kadour-ben-el-Morfy placed at the head of Bordj, could not accustomed to peace would prevail in the country, meets to raise Mustapha Beni-Amer, one of the most populous tribes in the province. The Arabs of the tribe refused to pay Ashura, alleging that the cessation of the war made the tax unnecessary, and that they do not recognize their masters for the infidels and their allies. The Douayers and Zmelas, tribes accustomed to live in the nineteenth century of looting, joined the Beni-Amer and began hostilités.Abd-el-Kader at rassemble its faster riders around Mascara, march against the enemy and surprised several cities left defenseless. But he had the imprudence to establish his camp on the edge of the forest Zétoul in the country of rebels. In the middle of the night, Douayers began fleeing some of its troops, removed his camp at a gallop, and forced to return almost alone in Mascara.
At this news, Sidi el-Aruba lifted the banner of revolt, other heads of disgruntled imitèrent his example, and Abd al-Kader found himself surrounded by enemies. Rather than take advantage of these divisions that were beginning to rise among Arabs, and take advantage of the blow that had just been brought to the emir by the Beni-Amer, the French intervened if they surrendered awkwardly Abd-el-Kader stronger after this failure it was before.
Mustapha Ben Ismaè'l and Kadour-ben-el-Morfy, instigators of the insurgency, had written to General Voirol Desmichels and their commitment on behalf of tribes to insurgent reconaître subjects of France, to overthrow Abd-el-Kader and bring the troops submission of the emir. But General Desmichels, instead of accepting this proposal, took Abd-el-Kader under its protection. This being supported by the French and master of the province of Oran, ie this vast country that stretches from the Chlef until the empire of Morocco, followed the example of pasha of Egypt, where he studied politics, and he formed the trader of its states. It was forbidden for Muslims to deal directly with the Christians.
Abd-el-Kader does not tint it objected that the French could visit Tlemcen, on the pretext that Arabs and Jews, did not see foreigners among them.
Soon he formed the project to seize two provinces in eastern and central, and provide a Moorish state in the highlands and to give the French Algerian coast. He took a roundabout way to achieve his goal: he wrote that, thanks to him, the whole province of Oran was now peaceful, that is beginning to agitated, but he urged the French generals not to point to get here, he was responsible for bringing himself insurgent tribes in the tender. General Voirol can not be taken in these clever proposals. He refused the assistance that the Emir offered.
A cult of fanatics came to revolt against Abd al-Kader. Instead of encouraging the rebels, the French still took them to party against Abd al-Kader.
The sect was raised by preaching holy war. Important characters were at the top of the league, and among others, the brother of Abd-el-Kader, Sidi-Mustapha, former boss of Flitter. With the energy of the emir, the revolt was quickly mate.
Abd-el-Kader has long sought to leave his province, an incident gave him the opportunity. A Cheliff named Hadji-Mouça, claimed to have found a way to prevent guns and rifles of the infidels to leave. The people give credence to his words. Mouça at the head of important troops, seized Medea and Miliana, but Abd-el-Kader and attacked the challenge entièrement.L 'emir, passing the Cheliff had violated the conventions. However, given the service he had to make the French left him establish Hadj el-S'ahit Kalifat Medeah of, and demand Yachour (tithe). But the Count of Erlon, Governor-General, sent to the emir an officer of Staff to keep abreast of all enterprises. The officer not knowing a word of Arabic, did little to shade Abd-el-Kader, who gave him easily change.Le replacement of General Desmichels by General Trézel was the beginning of hostilities. The first task of the new governor was working to detach the most powerful tribes of the cause of the emir. The Douayers Smela and declared themselves subjects of France, provided effective protection. The Earl of Erlon refused to sanction the measure, and Abd al-Kader, instructed the disagreements that existed between the generals, persecuted tribes subject: they go to General Trézel, who replied: "the word of a French general is sacred in an hour, I will be among you. "
And without hesitation, he sort of Oran in the head two miles of armed men on 26 June 1835. This book in the forest-Mousa Ishmael a brilliant fight, where Colonel Oudinot died. The French lost the battle and nearly 800 men including 15 officers.
At the end of 1835, Marshal Clausell Mascara walked on at the head of eleven thousand men. The Duke of Orleans distinguished himself by his bravery in this expedition. Soldiers of the emir, beaten in Sig, in Abra, the Tafna, Idbar to be dispersed and left almost alone.
The Treaty of Tafna:
Abd-el-Kader quickly to make new supporters and to remind him that the tribes had abandoned. Having learned little success of the first shipment of Constantine led by the French, he believed the time to start hostilities in the province of Oran, but soon knew that General Bugeaud should walk against him, but it generally experiencing some difficulties in means of transport, and wanted hostilities to the province of Constantine, who would be the scene of a second expedition, made in 1837 with the emir, the Treaty of Tafna, which will then source misunderstandings.
Critics experts said that the convention made the emir master of the former regency of Algiers, the less the province of Constantine, that in each of the articles on the treatment of equals, and recognizes its independent sovereignty; that Convention has no guarantee, since it is based solely on moral and religious character of Abd-el-Kader, and so on. etc.
After the exchange of the treaty, the General Bugeaud did offer an interview to the emir for the next day. The appointment was nine o'clock in the morning, three miles from the banks of the Tafna. The General was nine hours, accompanied by six infantry battalions, ten cavalry squadrons and a few pieces of campaign. The emir did not came to agreed time. At about two hours, Arab horsemen announced that he had been ill and walked slowly as if General getting, it could push forward. The French marched without mistrust over an hour in the bend of a narrow gorge, interspersed with hills. Finally, the General saw the Arab Army, orderly row on nipples scattered. The illness of the emir was feint, and the French general had the air for coming to pay tribute to him. The officers were escorting a few moments of hesitation, believing in an ambush; Bou-Amedy, head of the tribe Oulanahs, who walked among them, took notice and told the General Bugeaud: "Be quiet, do not be afraid. - I am afraid of nothing," said the general, I am accustomed to seeing you in the face. But I find that indecent your boss made me come so far and me has been waiting so long. "The emir was surrounded by 150 to 200 chefs, bearing rich costumes and mounted on magnificent steeds. Abd-el-Kader of the preceding few steps, guiding a beautiful black horse, beautifully prepared; sometimes he removed four feet at once, sometimes he was walking on two feet behind. When he was within range of voice, the General Bugeaud launches its galloping horse, and arrived on the emir in cavalierly him hand it strongly press and requests for news of his health.
The Emir Abd el-Kader "Most good, and yours? "Said the general, who foots and urges Abd-el-Kader to do so. After a few minutes of an interview insignificant: "Have you ordered, he said, to restore trade relations with Algiers and around all our cities?
- No, I will do as soon as you visited me Tlemcen.
- I can not do so with the approval of my king.
- How long does it take to get this approval?
- It takes three weeks.
- It's too long, interrupted Ben-Arrach, lieutenant of the emir, who had approached ten to fifteen days is enough.
- Do you Order from the sea? Bugeaud said.
- We will wait until this day, the emir said.
- You do wrong as well, "said Bugeaud by depriving them of trade they need. As for us, we can do without, since we receive by Wednesday what we need. "
Thus ended the interview, which was without result since it was without purpose.
Through this agreement, France recognized its authority throughout the West beilik (except Oran, Arzew, Mostaganem and Mazagran) on the beilik of Titteri and the province of Algiers (with the exception of Algiers , Blida and the Mitidja plain and the Algerian Sahel). In such areas, two thirds of Algeria, Abd El-Kader trying to organize an independent and sovereign state on a religious basis, the embryo of modern Algerian state
Resumption of the war with the French:
The shipment of "the Iron Gates" in countries kabyleLe May 5 1839, he sought and obtained the support dusultan Morocco, as well as the concession of territory between Ouchda and Tafna.
He wanted to annex the Constantinois by appointing a "khalifa". In response, France organized the shipment of "Iron Gates" in October 1839, shipping was considered a violation of the Treaty Tafna. From that moment, the war resumed with violence. In October, in the west of the Mitidja he ambushed the commander Raffet and hundreds of French soldiers; them walk against him and resume Cherchell, Mildah, Milianah, etc..
In 1841, under the government of Bugeaud, Mascara, Tlemcen, Borhan, Thazat, Tekdemt, Sidon and Tafraout fell into the hands of French. The emir had neither cities nor shops, or treasures, was more than a partisan leader. Taking the smal by the Duke of Aumale it dealt a terrible blow and, pursued by over-General Bugeaud, he was forced to seek refuge in Morocco. There he was able to attach to his cause Sultan Abd-er-Rahman. As marabout, he preached extermination of infidels and raised many tribes Moroccan, he managed to be heard by the first court officials Fes, who only sought a pretext to declare war against the French.
The turning of the war was the appointment of Marshal Bugeaud as governor general of Algeria in 1842. It completely changed tactics of the French army, aided many troops composed of Algerians: regular troops (and spahis Zouaves) and irregular body: the Goumas). He harassed the troops of Abd El-Kader, seeking to cut their base. The emir was turned back on the high plateau steppe with its Smale, itinerant capital estimated at 30 000 personnes.Abd El-Kader suffered a serious setback on May 16 1843, with the capture of the smal by the Duke of Aumale in the region of Boghar. He assembled the rest of his troops, under the name of Deira, and turned to the Sultan of Morocco. The latter, who had designs on the west Algeria, intervened but was defeated in the Battle of the Isly (wadi near Oujda) on August 14 1844.Dans the Treaty of Tangier (10 September 1844), it was qu'Abd agreed-el-Kader would be outlawed in Algeria as well as in Morocco. The treaty marks the boundary between the two countries.
The French had not forgotten the ambush of Sidi Brahim, where their soldiers, commanded by Colonel Montagnac, were butchered mercilessly by the troops of the emir.
In 1845, many tribes des Hauts-Plateaux had submitted to the French. The Emir came punished. The Goum of Ouled Nail, under the command of Bel If Chérif Lahrech qu'Abdelkader had appointed khalifa, took part in these operations. Then he went in Kabylie where two battles took place against the French in February 1846. The Kabyles wanted not only follow the Emir who came in the Djelfa region and paths in all directions, pursued by the French, but helped by the population. Heavy fighting took place in Ain Kahla, to Zenin and Wadi El-Kader Boukahil.Abd tried to revive the revolt in 1847, but failing to rally the tribes Kabylia, he had to take refuge in Morocco.
General Lamoricière had learned qu'Abd-el-Kader, refusing to visit the sultan of Morocco, had agreed with its principal officers to try one last time fortune. The September 13, a former brigadier of 2 hunters in Africa who had escaped from the Deira, rushes to announce that the general emir wants to deliver a fight before retiring to the South with those who want the follow.
On 21 December 1847, five hours the Deira spends Kiss and enters the territory held by the French. Abd-el-Kader, only on horseback, is head of emigration; Lamoricière General, warned in time, ordered two detachments of twenty spahis selected coated white bathrobe and commanded by Lieutenant-Bou Krauïa and Brahim, to keep the passage was to Deira, to avoid any event, it makes the weapons he column and is on the border and had barely made a league and a half-jumper that sent the Bou-Krauïa prévinrent he was in the presence of Abd-el-Kader. It immediately flies to the rescue. After a few moments, he meets Bou-Krauïa himself with men loyal to Abd al-Kader, responsible for bringing its bid to Mr. de Lamoricière.
The emir had delivered to Bu-Krauïa a sheet of paper on which he had made his qu'apposer stamp, as the wind, rain and the night had nothing prevented from writing. Abd-El-Kader called a letter of aman for him and those who accompanied him.
The General could not, for the same cause, meet the emir, but he gave to his sword and sent the stamp of Bazaïin commander, giving them the verbal promise of aman most solemn.
Abd-el-Kader sent two officers and Lieutenant-Bou Krauïa with a letter requesting the aman, provided it led to Alexandria or St. John Acre. Mr. de Lamoricière consented in writing.
On 24 December, Abd-el-Kader was received by the generals and Lamoricière Cavaignac and Colonel Montauban, the marabout of Sidi Brahim, the scene of his triumphs. It then led to Nemours (DGEMM-Ghazouat) to the Duke of Aumale who was waiting there. The prince's word ratified by General Lamoricière, expressing the hope that the king would give his sanction. The Governor General told the emir that he would embark the next day to Oran, with his family, and submitted it without emotion and without reluctance. Before leaving the prince, Abd-el-Kader sent him a horse for submission to devote its vassalage and reddition.On reports that lorsqu'Abd-el-Kader gave its weapons to the Duke of Aumale, the prince took pistol, saying: "This is for the king! Then he gave to Mr. de saber Lamoricière: "This sword is for you, General, you've won. "
Prisoner in France:
The emir asked the forum to leave for Oran as soon as possible. He offered to leave immediately on the steam frigate Asmodée, which he accepted. The Asmodée began sailing carrying the emir and his entourage, consisting of 61 men, 21 women and 15 children of both sexes, a total of 97 people. It noted his elderly mother, two of his brothers-in-law, three women and two son, the youngest of whom was eight years old. Among the women was a young French named Juliette, born in Arles, which had been taken prisoner with his mother. The crossing was bad and Arab captives were very tired. Arrived in Toulon, Abd-el-Kader was tabled in Lazaret, then transferred to Fort Lamalgue, then the chateau of Pau where he stayed until 3 November 1848 and then leave it to the chateau d'Amboise. His stay in Pau left to palois a great memory and himself expressed regret in leaving this ville.Voici what can be found at the site of the town of Pau who, in 2007, will celebrate two hundred years Abdelkader birth. This man fate offline, founder of the Algerian nation, has forty years when he arrives in Pau, 29 April 1848. In the diligence that led Sète in Bearn, the emir has these pathetic words: "I see these verdant plains, these orchards, forests, rivers and these rivers; both abundance! What need have the French to occupy my country, sand and rocks? ".
Throughout his captivity in Pau, from 29 April to 3 November 1848, the great warrior will not move its apartments at the newly renovated castle, refusing to walk and not leaving his beloved Smale that evening to go to sleep in the dungeon Fébus . "I am an Arab mourning and grieving does not leave his tent and I'm in mourning for my freedom, I can not leave my room."
The romantic image of the great leader defeated, the inflexible patriot, attracts curious looking for a romantic frisson. At Pau, Abd el Kader does not refuse visits, quite the contrary. During these interviews, it never ceases to remind France of its lack of speech and underscore gravity. Soon, the image of warlord exotic gives way to a host loved, revered.
Upon leaving for Amboise, surrounded by friends palois moved to tears, the emir turns and says: "Leaving Pau, I leave a piece of my heart."
The voice of France is not bound by the arrangements and the successive governments. The Amir is held in captivity for five years. Upon assuming the Presidency of the Republic, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte is considering the release.
In January 1849 he organized a meeting at the Palais de Saint-Cloud, Marshal Bugeaud is present, but the difficulties of the new president with the House and his Minister of War him to postpone what he sees as a matter of Honor.
It was not until 16 October 1852, after returning from a tour in France that the future Napoleon III is formally announce his freedom to the emir. The Emir Abd El-Kader will never forget this gesture. Thereafter the two men regularly review. In some time, the agreement between the two men had become excellent.
After oath, on its own initiative, not to disrupt the French operations in Algeria (December 1852), he left for Bush and then Damascus. Il enseigne la théologie à la mosquée des Omeyyades). En juillet 1860, les troubles confessionnels du Mont Liban se sont étendus à Damas. Des musulmans et des druzes attaquèrent les quartiers chrétiens, tuant plus de trois mille habitants. L'émir intervint pour arrêter le massacre et protégea, au péril de sa vie, la communauté des quinze mille chrétiens de Damas et les Européens qui y vivaient, grâce à son influence auprès des dignitaires de la ville. Il reçut la grand-croix de la Légion d'honneur et d'autres marques de reconnaissance venant du monde entier (notamment du Pape, du Tsar de Russie, etc.). Il consacre le reste de sa vie à des œuvres de bienfaisances, à l'étude des textes scientifiques et sacrés et à la méditation jusqu'à sa mort à Damas. Ses cendres furent récupérées en 1965 et se trouvent aujourd'hui au cimetière d'El-Alia à Alger.Ce transfert des cendres a Alger a été discuté, car Abdelkader avait clairement souhaité être inhumé a Damas auprés de son maître Ibn Arabi. Il faut lire aussi ce qu'en dit Assia Djebar dans son livre: Le blanc de l'Algérie.Albin Michel 1995 Image:Dernier voyage de l'Emir Abd El-Kader
Un personnage complexe :
Abd El-Kader est également le concepteur de la capitale mobile : la Smala.
Pour la France coloniale de l'époque, il était le modèle de « l'indigène » éclairé et cultivé, pour l'avoir combattu avec honneur il fut respecté même par ses propre ennemis. C'était, de la part de la France, reconnaître l'ouverture d'esprit et la profonde humanité de l'homme d'honneur qu'il a été durant toute sa vie. Il a échangé une très prolifique correspondance avec des français, dont la contribution apporté au livre du Général Daumas sur le cheval. Il faut citer également les relations et les entretiens qu'il eut avec Monseigneur Dupuch, êveque d'Alger.
Malgré ses contradictions, l'" Ami des Français " ,comme aimait le qualifier les européens, est aussi considéré en Algérie comme le père de la nation, le héros qui ne s'est rendu que pour préserver les Algériens d'un combat inégal et perdu d'avance. En Algérie, depuis quelques années, la figure du héros national s'est enrichie et les Algériens, grâce à toute une littérature mystique découvrent la dimension soufie du résistant à la conquête française.
Il est aussi et surtout l'un des plus grands mystiques du XIXe siècle, qui a laissé un ouvrage d'une profondeur rare sur son propre cheminement intérieur : le livre des Haltes, Qitab al-Mawaqif. il influença de nombreux penseurs ésotériques et orientalistes tel René Guédon.